Business and Economy of JamalpurJamalpur is the second largest city of the Munger district. Jamalpur is a key economic node in the district with a total population of 105,221 persons as per provisional estimates of Census 2011. It is located 170 km east of Patna which is the state capital and 470 km northwest of Kolkata.
It is a block headquarters and municipal council in the Munger district of Bihar. Jamalpur is also well connected with the rest of the country via rail and road networks. The National Highway 80 passes close to the city boundary and connects it to the city of Patna. Geographically, it is located in the southern alluvial plains of the river Ganga.
Economic History of JamalpurThe present structure of Jamalpur has evolved through spatial developments over the last century. It is a city of regional importance. The city was established during the British Raj as a cultural hub for the Railway Institute. Developed as a planned township back in 1862, the city administration was under the Railways. It is responsible for holistic development of the city including non-railway area of the city. At present, the Jamalpur Municipal Council (JMC) governs 36 wards of the city under Bihar Municipal Act 2007.
Economic Profile of JamalpurThe economy of the city of Jamalpur largely depends on agriculture. The principal agricultural crops grown here are paddy, wheat, jute, pulses, maize and oil seeds. Many vegetables are also grown here, which includes cabbage, carrot, radish, cauliflower, beat, tomato etc. Jamalpur is also known for its railway workshop which provides job opportunities to most residents of the city and also the surrounding areas. There are a good number of educated professionals including doctors, engineers and government services working in this city.
Key Economic Activities in JamalpurThe economy of Jamalpur is based on Tertiary Sector. Trade & Commerce, Construction, Hotel Business and Medical Business are major contributor of the city’s economy. ITC factory and agriculture are also major sources of livelihood of the people in Jamalpur as well as the district of Munger. Major Agriculture/ Horticulture produce include pulses, wheat, rice, jute, oil seeds, maize, tomato, cauliflower, radish etc. Also there is abundant production of good quality raw hides for leather manufacturing, but currently it is only a secondary source of income. The city is also famous for manufacturing of guns and arms. Hence gun manufacturing has been an age old profession which is exists from generations. Besides this, it has a railway workshop which employs maximum percentage of population.
Agrarian Economy in JamalpurAgriculture makes an important contribution in the economy of Bihar. Due to fertile alluvial soil and proximity to river ganges, Jamalpur is one of the fertile regions of Bihar. Wheat, paddy, rice, pulses are grown in abundance in the area. Fruits like watermelons, banana are also cultivated on large scale. Now a days cash crops like sugarcane, jute are also being favored by the farmers in the regions. The government is also taking initiatives to develop agricultural infrastructure in the region by granting various subsidies and relief packages to boost the production of crops in the region.
Railway Workshop in JamalpurJamalpur Workshop established in 1862 was primarily concerned with repairing and assembling of locomotives from parts salvaged from other or damaged locomotives. Today, Jamalpur’s railway workshop is one of the oldest but at the same time, one of the largest workshops in India. It has the most diversified manufacturing activities on the Indian Railways. Many manufacturing activities are still being carried within the workshop, with a major input from outsourcing to companies based in Howrah and other parts of the country.
Gun Manufacturing in JamalpurGun manufacturing came into prominence during the First World War when gun cartridges were produced. This industry is another major industry in the city of Jamalpur. It is more than 200 years old. Gun manufacturing in the city became a popular profession over the years. The production increased in the early 19th century with regard to supplying of arms and ammunition to the revolutionaries of Bihar, Bengal, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Punjab.
Leather Production in Jamalpur
Jamalpur city is also rich in the production of goat skins, cattle hides and buffalo hides. It is known for the best quality goat skin, cow hides and buffalo skins. Distribution of goat skins, cattle hides and buffalo hides is also a major economic activity. Goat skins are smaller in size and they are best suitable materials for the production of glazed kid leathers and ladies shoes. Due to which the leather production many small scale units for leather goods have set up in the region. These units are known for producing range of goods from leather bags to shoes and more.
Tobacco Cultivation in JamalpurJamalpur is presumably suitable for tobacco cultivation. This is mostly possible due to the availability of transport facilities by rail, road and river. Tobacco production is another source of employment to the residents of Jamalpur and its surrounding areas.
Trade and Commerce in JamalpurTrade and commerce has emerged as other significant economic activity in the city of Jamalpur. The city serves as lower level service center to citizens and surrounding villages. The most offering markets in the city are Raja Bazar (Jublee Well), Wighte House, Sadar Bazar, Durgasthan. Total number of shops and offices has been estimated (JMC) as nearly 800. The wholesale and retail shops of grocery items, garments, shoes, utensils, medicines, construction goods, electronic goods, electrical goods, stationary, jewellery, vegetables and fruits are available in order to fulfill the local requirements of citizens. As per City Development Plan of Jamalpur, the Jamalpur Municipal Corporation owns 75 shops in the city.
The above mentioned economic activities are expected to spur the growth in employment and incomes in Jamalpur, given that a significant portion of population in Jamalpur and its surroundings depend upon railways and its manufacturing activities. It also approaches to economic development with which the livelihood opportunities and incomes for the wider population can be maximized. With a steady growth in such economic and business activities, Jamalpur can soon be added to the most developed and major cities in India.
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